Changes in body weight are dependent upon the amount of energy put into the body versus the amount of energy used by the body. For weight maintenance, the energy amounts must be equal. If there is an excess of energy put into the body, weight gain will result. If there is more energy burned than consumed, a weight loss will occur.
This formula is the same for athletes however, an athlete’s energy requirements are different from that of the sedentary population. For weight maintenance, an increased amount of energy must be consumed in order to equal the greater amount of energy expended. This energy goes into the body as calories. In order for the body to work most efficiently, these calories must come in the form of a well-rounded diet. Activities in different sports require different nutritional needs, but every athlete should restrict the intake of fatty foods, and be sure to eat plenty of fruits and vegetables.
If an athlete experiences a loss in weight, it could be the result of some different things. First of all, if the weight loss is unwanted, then simply not enough calories are being supplied to meet the demand. If weight loss is the goal, then the loss should result in not more than one pound of fat per week. For weight loss that occurs during a workout, be sure to drink plenty of water and sports drinks to replace that fluid weight lost. Otherwise the body will become dehydrated.
One other thing to consider is that muscle tissue weighs more that fat. As a person exercises, the body loses fat weight, but also gains muscle weight. So with long term exercise a change in body composition will result. This change will most likely lead to overall changes in weight, but will result in a more healthy and efficient body.
by Chris Klekker, Riverview High School Athletic Trainer
The practice of using supplements and ergogenic aids to increase athletic performance is on the increase in athletics; however there exist substantial safety concerns and myths about their use. It is very important that athletes, parents, and coaches be informed as to the current status of knowledge pertaining to supplements, which as of right now are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Many associations, including the National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) discourage the use of supplements by athletes because of the insufficient data concerning their long-term adverse effects, especially in adolescent athletes.
|Whatis it?||A synthetic versionof a compound produced in the body from three amino acids. It is also available in diet from fish and meat||Adrenal hormonethat converts to testosterone in the body||Synthetic versionsof the male hormone testosterone||Polypeptide hormonesecreted by the pituitary gland||Caffeine, ephedrine,mahaung|
|Howdoes it work?||Increasesthe level of creatine and phosphocreatine in skeletal||Short-termincrease in testosterone levels||Increaseslevels of testosterone in body||Increaseslevel of growth hormone in body||Increasesblood pressure, metabolic rate, respirations, heart rate, acts as diuretic|
|ProposedBenefits||Boosts musclestores of creatine, ability to do more intense short-term work||Allows one totrain harder and recover more quickly from exercise||Increases muscledevelopment and strength||Increases musclemass and strength||Increases work-load,endurance and energy|
|SideEffects||Nausea, GI distress,muscle cramping, strains, sprains, decrease in body’s production|
|Enhancement offemale characteristics, increased risk of heart disease and pancreatic|
|Affects liverand cardiovascular function, increased aggression||Affects cardiovascularand liver function||Nervousness,dehydration, nausea, muscle tremors, heart palpitations, diarrhea|
|Long-TermEffects||Unavailable atthis time||Unavailable atthis time; Likely similar to anabolic steroids||Liver and heartdisease, stroke, drug dependence, menstrual abnormalities, in females:|
an increase in male sex characteristics
|Thickening ofsoft tissue, excessive bone growth, pathological growth of the heart,|
kidneys, colon cardiomyopathy, insulin resistance
|Addition, withdrawalsymptoms such as headaches, irritability, fatigue, and upset stomach|
|Age Factors||Theoretical concernsabout extra load placed on kidneys and other organs and the effects|
on muscle/bone junctions in the skeletally immature
|Unavailable atthis time||In adolescents, potentially serious health problems during puberty, premature physeal|
closure (decrease in adult height)
|In adolescents, potentially serious health problems during puberty||Unavailable atthis time|
|Who bansit?||No sports governingbodies at this time||IOC, NCAA, NFL||IOC, NCAA, NFL,NHL, MLB||IOC, NCAA||IOC, NCAA|
|Availableover the counter||Yes||Yes||No||No||Yes|
For more information and sample diets visit these websites:
Zinder, S.M. and Shultz, S.J. Supplements. National Federation of State High School Associations – Resource Department. 57-60. 2001.